the New Scientist
THE ELECTRIC KOOL-AID CLINICAL
LSD and other hallucinogens were once considered promising
psychiatric treatments. Vive la renaissance, says John Horgan
JOHN HALPERN clearly remembers what made him change his mind about psychedelic
drugs. It was the early 1990s and the young medical student at a hospital in
Brooklyn, New York, was getting frustrated that he could not do more to help the
alcoholics and addicts in his care. He sounded off to an older psychiatrist, who
mentioned that LSD and related drugs had once been considered promising
treatments for addiction. "I was so fascinated that I did all this research,"
Halpern recalls. "I was reading all these papers from the 60s and going, whoa,
wait a minute! How come nobody's talking about this?"
More than a decade later, Halpern is now an associate director of substance
abuse research at Harvard University's McLean Hospital and is at the forefront
of a revival of research into psychedelic medicine. He recently received
approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to give late-stage
cancer patients the psychedelic drug MDMA, also known as ecstasy. He is also
laying the groundwork for testing LSD as a treatment for dreaded super-migraines
known as cluster headaches.
And Halpern is not alone. Clinical trials of psychedelic drugs are planned or
under way at numerous centres around the world for conditions ranging from
anxiety to alcoholism. It may not be long before doctors are legally prescribing
hallucinogens for the first time in decades. "There are medicines here that have
been overlooked, that are fundamentally valuable," says Halpern.
These developments are a remarkable turnaround. Scientists first became
interested in psychedelic drugs - also called hallucinogens because of their
profound effect on perception - after Albert Hofmann, a chemist working for the
Swiss pharmaceutical firm Sandoz, accidentally swallowed LSD in 1943. Hofmann's
description of his experience, which he found both enchanting and terrifying,
spurred scientific interest in LSD as well as naturally occurring compounds with
similar effects: mescaline, the active ingredient of the peyote cactus;
psilocybin, found in magic mushrooms; and DMT, from the Amazonian shamans' brew
At first, many scientists called these drugs "psychotomimetics" because their
effects appeared to mimic the symptoms of schizophrenia and other mental
illnesses. However, many users rhapsodised about the life-changing insights they
achieved during their experiences, so much so that in 1957, British psychiatrist
Humphry Osmond proposed that the compounds be renamed "psychedelic", from the
Greek for "mind-revealing". The term caught on, and psychiatrists started
experimenting with the drugs as treatments for mental illness. By the mid-1960s,
more than 1000 peer-reviewed papers had been published describing the treatment
of more than 40,000 patients for schizophrenia, depression, alcoholism and other
A prominent member of this movement was Harvard psychologist Timothy Leary, who
among other things tested whether psilocybin and LSD could be used to treat
alcoholism and rehabilitate convicts. Although his studies were initially well
received, Leary eventually lost his reputation - and his job - after he began
touting psychedelics as a hotline to spiritual enlightenment. Leary's antics
helped trigger a backlash, and by the late 1960s psychedelics had been outlawed
in the US, Canada and Europe. Unsurprisingly, clinical research ground to a
halt, partly because obtaining the necessary permits became much more difficult,
but also because few researchers were willing to risk their reputations studying
But to some brave souls, psychedelic medicine never lost its allure. One of them
is Rick Doblin, who in 1986 founded the Multidisciplinary Association for
Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) in Sarasota, Florida, and who earned a doctorate from
Harvard's Kennedy School of Government after writing a dissertation on the
federal regulation of psychedelics. For nearly 20 years MAPS has lobbied the FDA
and other government agencies to allow research on psychedelics to resume. It
has also persuaded scientists to pursue the work and raised funds to support
them. A similar body, the Heffter Research Institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico,
was founded in 1993 by scientists with an interest in hallucinogens.
In the past couple of years their efforts have begun to pay off. Doblin is
optimistic that psychedelic research is back for good, and this time it will do
things right. "This gives us the chance to show that we have learned our
lessons," he says. Halpern, too, is anxious to lay to rest the ghost of Leary.
"That man screwed it up for so many people," he says.
With this in mind, Halpern says the first task for him and others is to evaluate
the safety of psychedelics. And they are up against an entrenched orthodoxy: a
1971 editorial in The Journal of the American Medical Association warned that
repeated ingestion of psychedelics causes personality deterioration. "Only a few
of those who experience more than 50 'trips' are spared," it warned.
“I was reading all these papers from
the 60s and going, whoa, wait a minute! How come nobody's talking about this?”
So Halpern's first big foray into psychedelic research was aimed at
risk-assessment. In the late 1990s he launched a study of members of the Native
American Church, who are permitted by US law to consume peyote. Halpern examined
210 residents of a Navajo reservation in the south-west US, who fell into three
categories: church members who had taken peyote at least 100 times but had had
little exposure to other drugs or alcohol; non-church members who abstained from
alcohol or drugs; and former alcoholics who had been sober for at least three
Halpern tested the subjects' IQ, memory, reading ability and other functions.
His interim results showed that church members had no cognitive impairment
compared with the abstainers, and scored significantly better than recovering
alcoholics. Church members also reported no "flashbacks" - sudden recurrences of
a psychedelic's effects long after the initial trip. Halpern believes this
study, which he expects will be published soon, shows that contrary to the 1971
editorial, peyote at least can be taken repeatedly without adverse effects.
He is now conducting a similar assessment of MDMA. This drug is sometimes called
an "empathogen" because it heightens feelings of compassion and reduces anxiety.
Anecdotal reports suggest it has therapeutic potential, and some psychiatrists
used it alongside psychotherapy before it was outlawed in 1985. However,
anecdotal and scientific evidence have also linked MDMA with brain damage,
though the research is controversial.
Judging the true impact of MDMA is complicated by the fact that users often
combine it with other drugs and alcohol. To get around this, Halpern recruited a
group of American mid-westerners who admitted taking MDMA but said they shunned
other substances. He separated them into "moderate" users, who had consumed MDMA
22 to 50 times, and "heavy" users, who had taken it more than 50 times.
Halpern recently reported in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence that,
compared with controls, heavy users displayed "significant deficits" in mental
processing speed and impulsivity. Moderate users, however, had no major
problems. Halpern believes this shows that MDMA's benefits may outweigh its
risks for certain patients. And apparently the FDA and the McLean Hospital
agree, since both have approved Halpern's plan to test MDMA as an anti-anxiety
drug for a dozen late-stage cancer patients. Halpern still needs permission from
the Drug Enforcement Administration, but he expects to begin recruiting patients
He is also interested in the potential benefits of the true hallucinogens. In
1996, he reviewed almost 100 substance abuse trials involving LSD, psilocybin,
DMT and ibogaine, an extract of the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga. Halpern
found tentative evidence that the drugs can reduce addicts' cravings during a
post-trip "afterglow" lasting for a month or two. Exactly how this happens is
something of a mystery. A popular theory is that the benefits stem from the
drugs' psychological effects, which include profound insights and cathartic
emotions, but Halpern suspects that there may be a biochemical explanation too.
For now, however, Halpern isn't planning to pursue addiction therapy. He is more
interested in another medical use for LSD and psilocybin: treating a
debilitating condition known as cluster headaches. These attacks appear to be
caused by swelling of blood vessels in the brain and are worse than migraines.
Sufferers say the pain exceeds that of passing a kidney stone or giving birth
without anaesthetics. They affect about 3 in every 1000 people sporadically, and
1 in 10,000 chronically. "There's a tremendous potential need for this," says
Halpern, who investigated the problem after being approached by a patient group.
Many patients get little or no relief from painkillers, but some claim that
small doses of LSD or psilocybin can alleviate the headaches and even prevent
them from occurring. Halpern was intrigued; LSD is chemically related to ergot,
a naturally occurring compound that constricts blood vessels, and the
derivatives ergotamine and methysergide are commonly prescribed for migraines.
Halpern and his Harvard colleague Andrew Sewell are now gathering evidence to
persuade licensing officials - and themselves - that LSD and psilocybin merit a
clinical trial. Sewell has gathered more than 60 testimonials from cluster
headache sufferers who have treated themselves with LSD or psilocybin.
Another member of the vanguard in the psychedelic revival is Charles Grob, a
psychiatrist at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, and
co-founder of the Heffter Institute. After years struggling to get permits, Grob
says he is slowly moving forward with a study into using psilocybin to reduce
distress in terminal cancer patients. He points out that studies done in the
1960s suggested that psychedelics can help patients come to terms with their
impending death. So far Grob has treated three patients, but he hopes to enrol
more subjects shortly.
Grob has also led several investigations like Halpern's peyote study, but
looking at ayahuasca, the DMT-rich shamanic brew. Ayahuasca often causes nausea
and diarrhoea, and its psychedelic effects can be terrifying, but Amazonian
shamans nonetheless prize it for its visionary properties. Since 1987 it has
been a legal sacrament for several churches in Brazil, the largest of which is
União Do Vegetal. UDV combines elements of Christianity with nature worship, and
claims 8000 members.
In 1996 a team led by Grob reported in the Journal of Nervous And Mental Disease
that UDV members who regularly took ayahuasca were on average physiologically
and psychologically healthier than a control group of non-worshippers. The UDV
followers also had more receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has
been linked to lower rates of depression and other disorders. Many of the UDV
members told the scientists that ayahuasca had helped them overcome alcoholism,
drug addiction and other self-destructive behaviours.
“Addicts often end up filled with
revulsion for their past lives and determined to change”
More recently, Grob has found that adolescents who grew up participating in
ayahuasca ceremonies showed no ill effects and were less likely to engage in
crime and substance abuse than members of a control group. Of course, Grob
acknowledges that they could be benefiting from the social effects of membership
in a church as well as the effects of ayahuasca itself. Grob plans to publish
these results this year.
Several other scientists are quietly pursuing psychedelic research. Since 2001,
psychiatrist Francisco Moreno of the University of Arizona in Tucson has been
testing psilocybin as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Psychotherapy and antidepressants such as Prozac help many patients, but some
have such severe symptoms and are so resistant to treatment that they turn to
electroshock therapy and even brain surgery. As with the work on cluster
headaches, Moreno's study was motivated by reports from people with OCD that
psilocybin relieves their symptoms.
So far, Moreno has given both sub-psychedelic and psychedelic doses of pure
psilocybin to nine treatment-resistant OCD subjects, in a total of 29 therapy
sessions. His preliminary findings suggest firstly that it is safe to ingest
psilocybin, which was a primary concern of the trial. Beyond that, Moreno calls
his results "promising", but won't discuss them further, since he plans to
submit a paper to a peer-reviewed journal this year.
“By the mid-1960s, over 1000 papers
had been published describing psychedelic therapy”
Meanwhile in Charleston, South Carolina, physician Michael Mithoefer is carrying
out a MAPS-sponsored clinical trial of MDMA as a treatment for post-traumatic
stress disorder. PTSD affects up to 20 per cent of people who experience a
traumatic event, and involves distressing symptoms such as nightmares and panic
attacks. Conventional treatments typically consist of cognitive therapy and
antidepressants, but many patients don't respond to these. In the past year
Mithoefer has given "MDMA-assisted" psychotherapy to six treatment-resistant
patients, all traumatised by violent crimes; he plans to treat 20 patients in
The longest-running psychedelic therapy programme started almost 20 years ago in
Russia. Evgeny Krupitsky, a psychiatrist who heads a substance-abuse clinic in
St Petersburg, has treated more than 300 alcoholics and about 200 heroin addicts
with ketamine. Used primarily in veterinary medicine, ketamine is an anaesthetic
that can trigger an extremely disorienting hallucinogenic episode lasting an
hour or so. Krupitsky's subjects often emerge from their sessions filled with
revulsion for their past lives and determined to change. The therapists
encourage these feelings with tricks such as forcing the subjects to sniff a
bottle of vodka at the peak of their session; the patients' disgust often
persists long after the ketamine's effects have worn off.
In one of Krupitsky's studies, 73 out of 111 alcoholics stayed dry for at least
a year after their session, compared with 24 per cent of those in a control
group. Yet his programme, which was funded by MAPS and the Heffter Institute,
was recently shut down because the Russian government tightened restrictions on
ketamine. Although Krupitsky says he and his colleagues "are in the process of
getting permission to continue", it may be several years before research
Although disappointed by this setback, Doblin is encouraged by developments
elsewhere. He is lobbying officials in Spain and Israel to approve studies of
MDMA for PTSD, and is raising funds for a substance-abuse trial of ibogaine
outside the US together with the Heffter Institute. MAPS has also supported
Frans Vollenweider, a psychiatrist at the University of Zurich in Switzerland,
who has done basic research on the physiological effects of psilocybin and MDMA,
and hopes to begin clinical research soon.
Doblin's primary goal is to see psychedelics legally recognised as medicines.
But he also hopes that someday healthy people may take these substances for
psychological or spiritual purposes, as members of the Native American Church
and União Do Vegetal do, and as he did in his youth. After all, drugs such as
Prozac and Viagra are already prescribed not just to heal the ill but also to
enhance the lives of the healthy.
It is still an uphill struggle. Government funds for psychedelic studies are
hard to come by, and drug companies have shown absolutely no interest in
supporting the research. But there are signs that the wind is changing. Although
psychedelics are still classified in the US as schedule-1 drugs, and so are
banned for all non-research purposes, in November a US Federal Appeals Court in
Colorado ruled that a branch of the UDV based in Santa Fe, New Mexico, could
import ayahuasca for use in ceremonies. Among the research findings cited in the
court decision were Grob's studies showing no ill effects from ayahuasca. The
Department of Justice is appealing the decision, but if the Supreme Court denies
the appeal, UDV members in the US will be able to ingest ayahuasca legally.
Maybe, just maybe, after more than 30 years in the wilderness, this powerful,
misunderstood but potentially mind-healing class of drugs is ready to be
John Horgan is a freelance science writer based in
Garrison, New York. His latest book, Rational Mysticism (Mariner Books), was
published in paperback last year
From issue 2488 of New Scientist magazine, 26 February 2005, page 36
(see current New
Scientist online version at